The Khoisan An educational information resource
Provided by the Future Perfect Corporation
The hunters of today have no collective name for themselves. They use their own group names, such as Ju/'hoansi (people who live on the border between northern Namibia and Botswana) or Hai//om (people who live around Etosha National Park).

San = Sanqua = Soaqua was a name given to hunters by the Khoekhoen of the Cape. The word means 'people different from ourselves' and became associated with those without livestock, or people who stole livestock.

The name 'Bushman' or 'Bossiesman' was given to low status people by the Dutch settlers in the 1600's, and referred to those who collected their food off the land and had no domestic animals.

Khoekhoen = Khoikhoi = Kwena is a general name which the herding people of the Cape used for themselves. The word can be translated to mean 'the real people' or 'men of men', meaning 'we people with domestic animals' as opposed to the Sonqua or Bushmen who had none.

Khoesaan = Khoisan is a general term which linguists use for the click language of southern Africa. Physical anthropologists use it as a biological term to distinguish the aboriginal people of southern Africa from their black African farming neighbours.

.. read on: A history of perspectives...

News Articles
UCT: 23 September 2020 - launches milestone Khoi and San Centre
Daily Maverick (Jay Naidoo): June 29, 2015 - A journey with the San
Dispatch Online (East London Newspaper): May 5, 1999 - Removal of Khoisan mummy from mountains slammed
The Independent (UK): Friday, 1 May 2009 - World's most ancient race traced in DNA study
Survival International: 20 May 2009 - Government renews assault on Bushmen
WW4 Report's blog: 04/30/2009 - Botswana: depressed diamond industry saves Bushmen lands In honour of women on National Womens month in South Africa, Celebrating a little known woman. By Horst Kleinschmidt : A Memorial to Zara Schmelen, August 2013.

The Khoikhoi
Reconstructing the Past
Where did they come from?
What did they do?
Social Organisation
Stock Ownership and Management
Religion and Nature
Further reading
The reference books used for the development of this site are recommended reading of the University of Cape Town and may be purchased online at Discovering Southern African Rock Art, The Bushmen of Southern Africa, Once We Were Hunters, The Cape Herders.
About this page
Where did it come from?
Developed by: Alan Levin
Edited by: Carolyn Neville
Sponsored by: Future Perfect Corporation
Special thanks to: Becky Ackermann and David Philip Publishers
Hosted by: Vanilla on SITUS
Also see Performers-rights, another information resource
The copyright in the material used for this site rests with the publisher, David Boyce. Please contact them directly at if you have any queries relating to the information provided in the content of this site. The developer and maintainer of this site, Future Perfect Corporation claims only the domain name as its property. This claim derives from the 'first come first served' policy basis by which domains are issued. However, we acknowledge the potential historical or cultural claim which an organisation or group of individuals may have to this domain, and we are therefore willing in principle to relinquish ownership accordingly based on any fair and legitimate application.